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阅读 5387 次 历史版本 0个 创建者:zc_zhouchao (2018/3/15 10:01:03)  最新编辑:zc_zhouchao (2018/3/15 10:01:03)
苦川楝子

中药名

苦川楝子 

别名

金铃子、苦楝子、楝子、楝树果、川楝树子、川楝实。

英文名

Toosendan Fructus。

来源

楝科植物川楝Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc.的成熟果实。

植物形态

落叶乔木,高达10米以上。树皮灰褐色,幼嫩部分密被星状鳞片。2回羽状复叶,小叶5~11,有短柄,叶片狭卵形或长卵形,长4~7厘米,宽2~3厘米,先端渐尖,基部圆形,常偏斜,全缘或有疏小齿,幼时两面密被黄色星状毛,后仅主脉及叶面有小疏毛,圆锥花序腋生。花萼5~6,花瓣5~6,紫色或淡紫色,雄蕊为花瓣的2倍,花丝连合成筒状,子房上位,瓶状,6~8室。核果椭圆形或近圆形,长15~3厘米,直径1.3~2.5厘米,黄色或黄棕色,内果皮木质坚硬,通常有6~8棱。种子扁平,长椭圆形,长约1厘米,黑色。花期3~4月,果期9~11月。

产地分布

生于平原、丘陵或者栽培。分布于陕西、甘肃、河南、湖北、湖南、贵州、四川、云南等地。

采收加工

冬季果实成熟时采收,除去杂质,干燥。

药材性状

类球形。表面金黄色至棕黄色。顶端有花柱残痕,基部凹陷,有果梗痕。外果皮革质,与果肉间常呈空隙,果肉松软,淡黄色。果核球形或卵圆形,质坚硬,两端平截,种子黑棕色。气特异,味酸、苦。

性味归经

性寒,味苦,有小毒。归肝经、小肠经、膀胱经。

功效与作用

舒肝、行气、止痛、驱虫。属理气药。

临床应用

用量4.5~9克,煎汤内服,用治胸胁、脘腹胀痛、疝痛、虫积腹痛。

药理研究

阻断神经肌肉接头间的传递;驱虫;抑菌。

化学成分

含驱蛔有效成分川楝素(toosendanin),以及多种苦味的三萜成分,苦楝子酮(melianone)、脂苦楝子醇(lipomelianol)、苦楝子酮,21-O-乙酰川楝子三醇(21-O-acetyltoosendantriol),21-O-甲基川楝子五醇(21-O-methyltoosendan-pentaol)、梣皮树脂醇等成分。

使用禁忌

脾胃虚寒者忌服。

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