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阅读 13005 次 历史版本 1个 创建者:旭日东升 (2011/1/27 11:31:56)  最新编辑:旭日东升 (2011/1/27 13:20:44)
金田起义
拼音:jīn tián qǐ yì
  
金田起义
  金田起义
  金田起义地址位于广西壮族自治区桂平县城北24公里处的金田村。洪秀全发展和巩固了拜上帝会,利用宗教形式进行各种形式的反帝反封建斗争。1851年1月11日(道光三十年十二月初十),是洪秀全三十八岁诞辰,拜上帝会会众齐集金田村。洪秀全宣布举行武装起义,建号太平天国,规模宏大的太平天国农民革命运动从此开始了。起义军在太平天国初期重要的领导人韦昌辉家设立拜上帝会机关,在韦家开炉打铁,秘密制造武器。当时的起义指挥部设在金田村西的犀牛岭营盘,营盘前设有练兵场,北设有起义前收藏武器的犀牛潭。太平军的作战指挥所设在金田村南4公里的新圩三界庙,洪秀全在这里指挥了新圩突围战。庙内现陈列有起义的历史文物资料。
 

主要领导人简介

洪秀全 

  
洪秀全
洪秀全
  洪秀全(1814—1864),广东花县人,农民家庭出身,他发展和巩固了拜上帝会,利用宗教形式进行各种形式的反帝反封建斗争。1851年1月11日(道光三十年十二月初十),是洪秀全三十八岁诞辰,拜上帝会会众齐集金田村。洪秀全宣布举行武装起义,建号太平天国,规模宏大的太平天国农民革命运动从此开始了。道光三十年十二月初十(1851年1月11日)洪秀全发动金田起义,建国号太平天国,自称天王。咸丰三年定都南京,称天京。颁布《天朝田亩制度》,又分兵西征、北伐(参见太平军北伐、太平军西征)。咸丰六年,因掌握军政实权的东王杨秀清“威权逼己”,遂密诏(一说无密诏)北王韦昌辉率军返京诛杨。韦又扩大事态,滥杀无辜。洪秀全迫于众怨,只好杀韦,以翼王石达开主政。次年,石达开受猜忌负气出走,太平天国濒危。洪秀全重用陈玉成、李秀成诸后起良将,自兼军师,又采取减赋和加强宗教宣传等措施,度过难关。同治二年(1863)冬,天京为清军围困,粮尽援绝。洪秀全拒绝李秀成突围的建议,固守天京。同治三年四月病卒。所著诗文及诏旨、文告等多收入《太平天国》(中国近代史资料丛刊之一)及《太平天国史料》等书中。

秦日纲 

  秦日纲(约1821—1856),广西桂平(一作贵县)人。原名日昌。早年加入拜上帝会。1851年12月在永安(今蒙山)任天官正丞相。1853年10月封顶天侯,代石达开驻守安庆。次年5月封燕王,奉命督师救庐州(今合肥),并出师援救北伐军,至舒城返回。后与湘军激战失利,退至安徽宿松、太湖一带。1855年败清湖广总督杨霈所部清兵,攻克武昌、汉口、汉阳。次年1月,东援镇江。破清军江北大营,再克扬州。后与石达开合兵击破江南大营,解天京(今南京)之围。7月,因在丹阳受挫,革去王爵。后在杨韦事变中,与韦昌辉合谋杀杨秀清及杨部太平军,于11月28日被处死,并革除封号。  

石达开 

  石达开(1831年-1863年),小名亚达,绰号石敢当,广西贵县(今贵港)客家人,太平天国名将,近代中国著名的军事家、政治家、武学名家,初封“左军主将翼王”,天京事变曾封为“圣神电通军主将翼王”,军民尊为“义王”(本人谦辞不受)。石达开是太平天国最富有传奇色彩的人物之一,十六岁“被访出山”,十九岁统帅千军,二十岁封王,英勇就义时年仅三十二岁,有关他的民间传说遍布他生前转战过的大半个中国,表现出他当年深得各地民众爱戴。  
 

萧朝贵

  萧朝贵(约1820—1852),壮族。生于清嘉庆末年,武宣县河马乡上吴关村人。金田起义的核心领导人之一,太平天国将领,被封为西王。 清道光二十三年(1843),洪秀全创立拜上帝会,派冯云山深入桂平一带传教,秘密组织革命力量。1845年加入拜上帝会,与好友杨秀清最早成为拜上帝会的成员。他们四处到壮、汉、瑶等各族人民中去宣传拜上帝会的教义和好处,积极动员各族众参加拜上帝会。二十八年(1848),冯云山被捕入狱囚于桂平县城,会众发生动摇。洪秀全返回广东营救。此时,萧朝贵与杨秀清假托天父、天兄托降,安定众心,坚持斗争。

冯云山 

  冯云山(1822-1852),汉族,太平天国杰出领导人之一,汉族客家人,出生于广东花县禾落地村,距官禄布五里,是洪秀全的表亲和同学,关系极为密切。他自幼诵读经史,博览群书,因屡试不第,在村塾中执教。1843年当洪秀全劝人拜上帝时,冯云山是最早信从者之一。
  

金田起义背景

  
  金田起义的前夜,正是鸦片战争后十年。中国社会的主要矛盾,是农民阶级与地主阶级之间的矛盾。这种矛盾的尖锐化,可以追溯到一个世纪以前。原来清初经过明末农民大起义和入关后的战争,社会经济在遭受严重破坏之后,到十七世纪末叶已经逐渐恢复起来。利用社会经济生活比较安定,地主阶级贪婪无厌地进行积累财富,于是出现了土地兼并的现象和商业与高利贷发达的现象。西方资本主义向东方进行侵略,并到处激起反抗的时代。封建的中国,在1840年鸦片战争中,开始被卷入西方资本主义的漩涡里面。正当西方资本主义侵略者刚刚侵入中国的时候,当时全国各地,到处孕育着革命的种子。英国的鸦片,腐蚀了清朝的统治,英国的大炮,也惊醒了中国广大人民。中国社会正在起着空前未有的大变化,不论南方与北方,城市与乡村,全部都动荡起来。起义的农民,已经在南中国的广西点起革命的火把,烽火烧遍了全广西。终于爆发金田起义。
  

金田起义简介

  
  太平天国是我国近代史上一场伟大的农民革命。1851年1月11日,两万多名头裹红巾的男女农民、手工业工人,聚集在广西省桂平县金田村,在欢呼声中庄严宣布举行起义,起义军建国号太平天国,公开宣告同满清王朝处于武装对立的地位。
  
  太平天国金田起义的领导者是洪秀全,他从1845年起用了5年时间,就在广西、广东建立了几十个大小据点,发展到数万人。
  
  1850年7月,洪秀全认为起义形势已经成熟,于是向各地会众发布了向金田村集中的总动员令。
  
  1851年1月11日(旧历十二月初十),是洪秀全的生日,金田起义因势爆发。
起义旧址
  起义旧址
  
  洪秀全颁布了5条军纪,要求太平军严格遵守:(一)遵条命;(二)别男行女行;(三)秋毫莫犯;(四)公心和睦,各遵头目约束;(五)同心合力,不得临阵退缩。这5条军纪虽然简明,(TodayOnHistory.com)但对增进太平军的团结和加强战斗力起了非常重要的作用,并因此取得广大人民的拥护。金田起义是太平天国革命的开始,它揭开了近代中国人民革命运动的序幕。
  
  太平军为建立自由幸福的理想天国,转战几千里,攻克了600多座城镇,席卷了半个中国,创下了我国历史上农民政权大旗14年不倒的最高纪录。
  
  太平天国运动虽然终归失败,但它打击了清王朝的统治,加速了封建制度的崩溃。它打击了外国侵略者,使其迅速把中国变为殖民地的企图不能实现。太平天国运动影响深远,它不仅鼓舞了以后中国人民的反封建斗争,(Todayonhistory.com)如孙中山就曾以洪秀全第二自命;而且对亚洲一些国家,如日本、(lsjt.net)朝鲜(东学党)都有过思想影响。
  
  天安门广场人民英雄纪念碑上刻着的“金田起义”的大型浮雕,供人们瞻仰的同时,也展示着它的历史意义。
  

金田起义过程

  
  1851年的一天,大清国统治下的广西,一个偏僻的小村镇,一群头缠粗布巾的人聚集在一起,历数着清王朝的腐败和他们“有田同耕、有饭同食、有衣同穿、有钱同使”理想。他们与众不同的装束,与帝王统治格格不入的理论,预示着一场惊天动地的风暴的到来。
  
  金田,广西中部的一个小村子,在刚刚成为太平天国运动的发源地后,清军调集了湖南、贵州等几省兵力向金田扑来。大兵压境,刚刚放下手中农具而成为太平军的将士们将如何抵抗呢?
  
  为了鼓舞刚刚揭竿而起的义军士气,自称“上帝儿子”的洪秀全,在誓师大会上说:现在造反的时机到了,万能的上帝在犀牛潭为我们准备了造反的武器。半信半疑的信徒排干了犀牛潭的水,果然在潭底里获得刀、枪、戟等数千件各种武器,一时间群情激昂,士气高涨。其实武器是洪秀全等人事先打造好扔进水潭里的。
  
  犀牛潭里武器的打造人就是后来成为太平天国北王的韦昌辉,他是土生土长的金田人,是村里比较富有的小财主。韦昌辉将全部家产献出,并在家里设十二座打铁炉日夜打制武器。又将武器涂上桐油,密藏于犀牛潭中。起义初期,韦家就成了太平军的大本营。
  
  起义后,太平军东出江口。江口就是金田东边,浔江北岸水路交通便捷的大湟江口,洪秀全将指挥部就设在这里。面对咄咄逼人的清军,太平军以浔江和周围山地为依托,两次重创清军,大大鼓舞了起义初期的太平军将士。
  
  为补充给养,太平军又回撤金田,经紫荆山,过东乡,转战武宣,象州,连败清军。在东乡洪秀全被正式推举为天王,并建立了初期的军事制度。
  
  经过几个月的转战,太平军面临武器粮食短缺的困境,又一次回师紫荆山 。紫荆山位于金田的西北面,雄关四伏、隘口连环,它西连武宣、象州,北通金秀,东出平南,是浔洲、柳州、梧州三府的交通要冲。加之林密路险,历来为兵家必争之地。太平天国的西王萧朝贵等人均来自紫荆山,可以说紫荆山是太平军在金田起义时的大后方。
  
  这里叫风门坳(澳),是进入紫荆山的必经之地。因风大和早晚风向时常变化而得名。传说太平军在此利用突变的大风大败清军。而在平静的水面下,的确掩盖着一处古战场。太平军和清军为争夺风门坳数次激战,隆隆炮声,人喊马嘶仿佛依然回荡在山谷里。
  
  在激战风门坳后,太平军成功突围,离开了他们起义的地方-金田。但一个更加广阔的天地正在等待他们,一场席卷半个中国,历经十四年的波澜壮阔的太平天国运动开始了。
 

金田起义成果

  

永安建制

 
  永安城为州治所在,是一座繁华坚固的中型城市。攻克这座城市后,洪秀全一家于十月一日进驻原知州衙门。城中一些富豪人家被抄家,抄家所得被纳入“圣库”,以资军用。但总的来说,太平军的纪律是相当不错的。在永安城里,太平天国建立起了自己的一整套制度,被历史学家称之为“永安建制”。道光二十八年,江忠源在家乡新宁开办团练,镇压当地瑶民起义有功,迁升浙江秀水知县。太平天国起事前,他恰好因父丧在籍,遂就地募兵数百人,称为“楚勇”,入广西助剿太平军,隶属于乌兰泰部。这是湖南地方团练升格为正规部队之始。
  

天朝田亩制度

  金田起义后太平军主要领导人制定了《天朝田亩制度》,这是中国几千年来农民起义的一个典范,具有划时代意义。其基本内容:《天朝田亩制度》的基本内容,是根据“凡天下田,天下人同耕”的原则,把每亩土地按每年产量的多少,分为上、中、下三级九等,然后好田坏田互相搭配,好坏各一半,按人口平均分配。凡16岁以上的男女每人得到一份同等数量的土地,15岁以下的减半。同时,还提出“丰荒相通”、以丰赈荒的调剂办法。主要措施 :《天朝田亩制度》以解决农民土地问题为中心,它涉及到经济、政治、军事、文教和社会改革等多方面的政策和措施。土地分为九等,好坏平均搭配。然后以户为单位,不分男女按人口平均分配。16岁以上分全份,15岁以下分半份。
  

金田起义意义

 
  金田起义有重要的历史意义,对于中国近代史的发展起了积极的促进作用,主要表现如下:
  ①金田起义是中国近代史上一次伟大的反封建反侵略的农民运动(性质),它是几千年来中国农民战争的最高峰。  
  ②金田起义坚持14年,势力达18省,严惩了中外反动势力。
  ③金田起义担任反封建反侵略双重任务。反对封建主义,加速了清王朝和整个封建制度的衰落和崩溃;反侵略,打破了西方侵略者把中国迅速殖民地化的企图。
  ④金田起义一些领导人开始向西方寻求真理,探索中国独立、富强的途径。
 
  金田起义的反封建精神,鼓舞着千百万农民群众,为推翻封建的土地制度而斗争。太平军所到之处,出现了没收地主、官僚的财产,焚毁田契、债券,限制地主收租的斗争场面。不少地主唉声叹气说:丰收"于我无份";有些地区的地主全年地租"籽粒无收"。有的地区甚至把地主的土地分掉,太平天国政权发给"田凭"。除此之外,太平天国把一些庙宇祠堂占有的土地、公田和逃亡地主的土地没收,分给没有土地的农民耕种。都在一定程度上满足了农民群众的经济政治要求。减轻了农民的负担,发挥了他们的生产积极性。有的地区出现了"谷物丰收"、"农安物阜"的繁荣景象。

金田起义的文告

 
  这里连带考察一下金田起义的有关文告。根据清方的奏报,金田的起义者在公开揭帜以后曾有“帖伪示诱胁”,即张贴起义文告以动员群众的举动。对此我们不禁要问:这篇(或这类)文告的具体内容会是什么样的?它(或它们)是否留存了下来?
 
起义文告
  起义文告

  早年研究太平天国史的专家简又文先生在其《太平天国全史》一书中曾收录有一篇起义檄文。据其介绍,“此檄文乃金田村黄石鸣录存私藏”,并“承桂平友人曹无忌先生抄寄”。檄文的开头部分如下:

  忖思未拜上帝以前,未尝扰害良民。既拜上帝以后,何尝劫掠城乡?不过志甘泉石,自成世外之逍遥;性乐烟霞,别有无名之天地。于是托迹颍水箕山,聊效巢由之洗耳;潜踪西山北海,暂比夷齐之采薇。孔子云:‘天下有道则见,无道则隐’。何乃尔等愚官劣宰,捉我同帮,押死公堂,轻如象蚁,谁不为痛心哉?故不得不纠集英雄,结盟豪杰,以作复仇之举。……[31]

  简又文认为“此篇文义与叙事,符合史实”。近年也有治太平天国史者加以引用。然而这篇所谓的起义檄文,视点很低,气魄过小,根本不可能是太平天国的起义文告。它把拜上帝会的领导者描述成一帮遁世的隐者,因官府的逼迫而不得不举兵造反,则未免滑稽可笑。通观其全文,很像是某位对拜上帝会历史一知半解的好事者所为。

  真正的太平天国起义文告,就其重要性而言,是应该被收入太平天国自身的“旨准颁行诏书”之中而加以刻印传世的。只要我们弄清起义的真切含义是仗义起兵勤王,确认起义的领导人是杨秀清与萧朝贵,那就不难发现:幸存至今的以杨、萧两人会衔的《奉天诛妖救世安民示》、《奉天讨胡檄》以及《救一切天生天养中国人民谕》等三篇文告,应即属于此类起义文告。这三篇文告不仅以《颁行诏书》为题汇集一册,多次刻印,而且直到癸好三年(1853)太平军占领南京之初还曾张贴过。在现存《颁行诏书》的几种不同版本中,一些字句的内容颇有异同,可见经过多次修改[32]。然而这些修改都属于枝节的或技术性的,其总体内容、总的精神始终未变。这三篇文告,首篇讲起义缘起,次篇论反满革命,末篇谕全国人民,内容各有侧重,但又组合成一个有机的整体。因此它们既可能是按时序先后分别发表,也可能是于起义后同时公布。由于现存《颁行诏书》的最早刻本迟至壬子二年(1852)才面世,我们对后两篇文告最初公布的时间已无法加以准确判定。但至少列于首篇的《奉天诛妖救世安民示》应是揭帜起义之初即行公布的文告。

  这篇告示一开始就着力宣扬了天父上帝“无所不知,无所不在,无所不能”的权能,尤其是戊申岁(1848)天父、天兄先后降凡所显出的“无数权能”,晓谕世人“好醒”,“亟早回头,拜真神,丢邪神”;接着便敦促身为团勇、壮丁的三合会党,不要忘记洪门歃血、结义拜盟时的反清誓言;最后则是如下的一段文字:

  今各省有志者万殊之众,名儒学士不少,英雄豪杰亦多,惟愿各各起义,大振旌旗,报不共戴天之仇,共立勤王之勋,本军师有所厚望焉。……独不思天既生真主以御民,自必扶天王以开国,纵妖魔百万,诡计千端,焉能同天打斗乎!但不教而诛,问心何忍,坐视不救,仁者弗为,故特剀切晓谕。尔等凡民亟早回头,拜真神,丢邪神,复人类,脱妖类。庶几常生有路,得享天福。倘仍执迷不悟,玉石俱焚,那时噬脐,悔之晚矣。切切特谕

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    扩展阅读[我来完善]

  • 1.央视历史频道网:http://www.cctv.com/
  • 2.历史上的今天:http://www.todayonhistory.com
  • 3.新文化网:http://www.xwhb.com
  • 4.《近代史研究》1996年第2期
  • 5.百度:http://www.baidu.com/
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